Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals with the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE) or old drugs into a medication to be used safely and effectively by patients. It is also called the science of dosage form design. There are many chemicals with pharmacological properties, but need special measures to help them achieve therapeutically relevant amounts at their sites of action. Pharmaceutics helps relate the formulation of drugs to their delivery and disposition in the body. Pharmaceutics deals with the formulation of a pure drug substance into a dosage form. Branches of pharmaceutics include:
- • Pharmaceutical manufacturing
- • Dispensing pharmacy
- • Pharmaceutical technology
- • Physical pharmacy
- • Pharmaceutical jurisprudence
Pure drug substances are usually white crystalline or amorphous powders. Historically before the advent of medicine as a science it was common for pharmacists to dispense drugs as is, most drugs today are administered as parts of a dosage form. The clinical performance of drugs depends on their form of presentation to the patient. The pharmaceutical department provide educational and research demand of pharmaceutical industry. The research activity include pharmaceutical formulations, new drug delivery systems, physical pharmacy, biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics.
Pharmaceutical chemistry also studies drug design and synthesis, but takes it a step further with the process of bringing new drugs to market. It include synthesis of medicinal compounds, structure elucidation of medicinal substances. Pharmaceutical chemistry involves the use of laboratory method to determine the composition of samples qualitatively, semi qualitatively and quantitatively. Various areas in pharmaceutical chemistry are
- • New drug development
- • Computer aided drug design
- • Structure activity relationship studies
- • In-vitro in- vivo screening of chemical moieties
The pharmaceutical analysis is a branch of chemistry, which involves the series of process for the identification, determination, quantitation, and purification. This is mainly used for the separation of the components from the mixture and for the determination of the structure of the compounds. The department of pharmaceutical analysis has the state of facilities for qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs and pharmaceuticals, development and application of analytical methods and technique relevant to pharmaceutical and toxicological sciences. The department specializes in training pharmacists and chemists in developing their knowledge and problem solving skills in pharmaceutical analysis. The department also emphasis on variety of analytical techniques such as titrimetric, chromatographic, spectroscopic, electrophoretic and electro chemical and their corresponding methods that have been applied in the analysis of pharmaceuticals.
Pharmacognosy is the study of medicinal drugs derived from plants or other natural sources. The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as "the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources. It is also defined as the study of crude drugs.It can be said that pharmacognosy is closely related to botany, plant chemistry, microbiology and pharmacology. Today pharmacognosy can be divided to three main field :
- • Ethnopharmacognosy
- • Phytotherapy
- • Phytochemistry
This department creates awareness on the medicinal uses of various naturally occurring drugs along with its history, sources, distribution , method of cultivation, active constituents, identification tests, preservation methods, substitutes and adulterants of various herbs of medicinal importance.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action; it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.
The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, and Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological receptors, and pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of chemicals from the biological systems. The divisions include:
- • Clinical pharmacology
- • Neuropharmacology
- • Psychopharmacology
- • Cardiovascularpharmacology
- • Pharmacogenetics
- • System pharmacology
- • Pharmacogenomics
- • Pharmacoepidemiology
The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties of the drug provides enough knowledge about the pharmacological action, adverse effect, drug interaction and mechanism of action of drug.